This chapter gives a vast sweep of history, and, though long, because it is unified, I must treat the whole chapter in one action. Certain interpretations, to me, are capable of further investigation, and I have said so in places. Therefore, this study is only intermediate and not final. A revised study may be sent at a later date.
Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
Christ/Gabriel continued his narrative, saying that in the first year that Darius took over Babylon, he was present to lend support and to give him military strength. In all histories of battles much is made of human commands and their exploits. In histories of politics, leaders are given commendations for their leadership.
But who praises God? It is God Who raises up armies and dashes them; it is He Who allows, or causes, leaders to arise, and it is He Who brings them down again. Nothing in this world can happen without His approval or direct command (both are the same in effect). Darius, not an Hebrew, was nevertheless given precedence at the time, because it was how God wanted it. Any human strength is of secondary importance, and is given by God anyway. Whatever happens in a genuine Christian’s life is whatever God has planned for him. Only those who fight against God will experience continual trouble of a spiritual and moral nature.
And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
Christ/Gabriel then said he would show certain truths to Daniel about the future of the Hebrews, and he repeats some of the facts already made known to Daniel in other visions. He said four more powerful kings would rise up after Cyrus and then the Persian rule would end. Actually, another nine kings arose after these major four, but they were insignificant, because the Persian rule was waning. The fourth major king was immensely powerful and rich, and so he was able to amass a massive army to fight Alexander the Great (verse 2).
Alexander (“a mighty king”) ruled a vast number of lands and did whatever he wished. But, he died suddenly (“his kingdom shall be broken”) and was divided up into four parts, each ruled by Greek kings. But, the new version was nothing like the one led by Alexander. “Not to his posterity” means that Alexander’s sons and family were murdered. “Nor according to his dominion” means that it took four kings to rule what Alexander ruled on his own.
And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:
And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
The “king of the south” was Ptolemy 1. He ruled the south, including Egypt and much of the Middle East. But, one who was initially weaker, the king who ruled the north, later overtook Ptolemy in strength. Seleucis Nicator (“he shall be strong above him”), by battles and intrigue, won three-quarters of the old Grecian kingdom, leaving Ptolemy in the south with just one quarter of Alexander’s old rule (“his dominion shall be a strong dominion”).
However, north and south were later joined when both kingdoms intermarried their princes and princesses. That is, Ptolemy Philadelphus (second king of the south) joined with the third king of the north, Antiochus Theos. Ptolemy’s daughter, Berenice, married Antiochus, after he divorced his wife, Laodice. The plan to create another big kingdom failed, however. When Berenice’s father, Ptolemy, died, Antiochus immediately threw her out and brought back his first wife, Laodice! In gratitude, Laodice is said to have poisoned Antiochus in 246 BC. She then pronounced her son, Seleucus Callinus, king.
Meanwhile, the son born to Berenice and Antiochus, did not gain any power at all. Berenice had travelled to the north with her servants. Laodice commanded that they murder their mistress, which they did, along with her son (verse 6). This happened because “He that strengthened her”, or protected her, was her father; once he died she had no protection.
“Out of the branch of her roots” – that is, Berenice’s roots – her father, Ptolemy, “shall one stand up in his estate”. This refers to Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy Euergetes, who became king of the south. He would “come with an army” to try and save his sister, but she was already doomed. Even so, he kept on marching north and most cities threw open their gates to him, out of hatred for Seleucus Callinus. In this way, Ptolemy took over much of the land with little effort. He went on to take the capital of Syria, and most of Asia Minor, but had to return to Egypt because of trouble there. This conquest took place in 246 BC and in total he reigned from 247 BC to 222 BC. Seleucus only reigned to 227 BC. Ptolemy took his plunder (valuables, gold, silver, and princes) back to Egypt. All of this was prophesied in the vision.
This is the test of a prophecy: it must not just come true in general – every spoken detail must come true, or the prophet is false. And, in those days, a prophet who told lies was put to death. The reason we know the modern ‘self-proclaimed’ prophets are liars is that what they say is usually irrelevant and more like occult predictions, and, what they say does not come true!
So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.
And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
The king of the south, Ptolemy 2, returned to Egypt and the two sons of Seleucus Callinus agitated to get back the lands taken from them by Ptolemy, and gathered a huge army. One son, Seleucus Ceraunus, had little money and his army was not loyal; he was poisoned by two of his generals. It was thus left to the other son, Antiochus Magnus, to do the avenging. They took back their land, some of it by treaty and some of it by force. They beat the Egyptian general, Nicholaus, and thought of entering Egypt itself. But, the king of the south, this time Ptolemy 3, Philopater, was “moved with choler” – he was bitter and extremely angry, and he moved out to engage the northerner in battle at Raphia, near Gaza, 217 BC.
Magnus had a great army, 62,000 foot soldiers, 6000 horsemen, and 102 elephants. Philopater had an even larger army, though he only had 73 elephants, and he won, killing 10,000 foot soldiers, 3000 horsemen and capturing 4,000 men. Philopater only lost 1,400 foot soldiers and 700 horsemen. It did not do him much good, because the king of the north returned with an even greater army, to gain riches and power.
When Philopater won, he tried to enter Jerusalem to do sacrifice to the Jewish God in the temple. But, for some reason, he became terrified and could not enter. After that he hated the Jews and finally killed 40,000 of them in Alexandria in 213 BC, as well as his own people. His nation turned against him after that.
And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.
But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.
He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
Philopater died in 204 BC after living a debauched life. His son, Ptolemy Epiphanes, became king at age 4 or 5. This was when Antiochus decided to attack again, this time much richer after campaigns to control parts if his empire. Antiochus partnered with King Philip of Macedonia. They decided to split the Egyptian kingdom into two, one part each. As the two joined to do battle, Egypt was rebelling anyway, against the Prime Minister, Agathocles, who was running Egypt on behalf of the baby king. Finally, the Alexandrians rebelled and had him, his family and his associates, put to death (verse 15). And so those who attacked Egypt had an almost free passage “and none shall stand before him”.
Christ/Gabriel shows Daniel who would finally destroy his people – the Romans (‘robbers’ means ‘destroyers’). The Romans shall ‘exalt themselves’… Scopas was sent by Rome to take the Egyptian army to Palestine in 202 BC. They took some land and put them back under Egyptian rule, guarding the young king. But, Scopas was later defeated by Magnus, who quickly took back his lands. Ptolemy’s army just could not win. Scopas went to do battle at the head of the Jordan, but was again defeated, and surrendered. His remaining army of 10,000 was let go, stripped of clothing.
Rome had to later send General Pompey against Antiochus Asiaticus in 69 BC, won in 65 BC, and made Syria a province of Rome. In 161 BC the Jews had made a pact with Rome. But, in 63 BC two Jews fought each other for the crown of Judea. Therefore, Pompey took his army to Jerusalem. One side wanted to lock the city and the other wanted to open it to Pompey. The latter won, but the others took to the temple to defend it. Pompey battered the walls and entered the temple by force, and so Jerusalem became a province of Rome, in 63 BC. This was the ‘beginning of the end’ for Israel, and in 70 AD the same Rome destroyed the Temple, Jerusalem, and Israel as a nation. “By his hand shall be consumed”.
The “He” in verse 17 was Julius Caesar, who decided to take over all remaining lands that once belonged to Alexander. Ptolemy and his sister, Cleopatra, were to rule Egypt jointly, but they argued and so Caesar sent a small army to settle it. Egyptians began a war against him, and in the battle the famed library at Alexandria was burned to nothing. As the battle escalated, Caesar called for extra men from surrounding nations. They joined Caesar, including the “upright ones” – 3000 Jews, who held valleys at the entrance to Egypt. Trying to escape, Ptolemy drowned in the Nile and Egypt finally gave in to Caesar. Cleopatra was ruler until 30 BC, when Egypt became a province of Rome.
Caesar and Cleopatra had a son together, and Caesar stayed in Egypt for a long time because of her. He spent his time drinking and generally carousing. But, Cleopatra then joined with Antony and, through him, exerted power against Rome.
After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.
Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
“After this”, Julius Caesar took Spain, north Africa and other parts. Typically, lands are often referred to as “Isles”. Unfortunately for Caesar, he was asked to be king; it was unfortunate because of what it led to. “A prince” was none other than Brutus who, up to a point, supported Caesar. He later took away all possibility of Caesar becoming king.
Caesar returned to Rome after successfully taking many lands: he “(turned) his face toward the fort of his own land”. But, “he shall stumble and fall” – he finally accepted the title of king. As he sat on the throne, Brutus and others stabbed him 23 times, causing him to stumble and fall, in 44 BC. He “could not be found” means he died.
Julius Caesar’s nephew, Augustus Caesar, took the place of his uncle (“shall stand up in his estate”) and he raised tough taxes in the time of Christ. On the other hand, Augustine encouraged austerity rather than luxury, learning, peace and discipline. However, Rome was still an invader hated by the many military ‘messiahs’ who wanted Israel to return to home rule. “Within few days” (actually, 18 years after raising the taxes) Augustine died. In terms of long-range prophecy 18 years is as nothing! Augustine died in his bed, so he died “neither in anger, nor in battle”, aged 75.
In his place came a “vile person”. This was Tiberius Caesar, who was extremely wicked, cruel, immoral and constantly drunk. The people of Rome did not like Tiberius and did not honour him, which perfectly fits the prophecy. The true rule should have been given to Agrippa, an honourable and moral man. Tiberius was known by Augustus to be vile and quite unworthy to become Caesar. Sadly, Agrippa died and Augustus had to choose again. In his old age and being ill, he gave in to the flattering pleas of his wife to choose Tiberius, to the detriment of the known world.
Today, many countries have wicked men as their rulers… the UK, USA, France, etc. They dishonour their own titles, positions and countries, doing damage to the people who did not want them in the first place. The same evil is found in the churches, too, as ungodly men rule denominations and groups in the name of Christ, but in the spirit of Satan. Rome and Canterbury are just two such rules.
And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.
And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.
Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
Tiberius, like so many tyrants before him, came to a violent end, and an even worse tyrant took his place. Tiberius led successful campaigns in Germany and elsewhere and was resting a short while in a country house at Micenum. He had some kind of illness that made him appear dead. The wicked Caligula decided to march back to Rome as the next ruler, but Tiberius suddenly revived. At that point, the Praetorian prefect, Marco, suffocated him with pillows. Tiberius died age 78. Thus, he was “broken”.
The “prince of the covenant” – Jesus Christ – was also “broken” about the same time… that is, during the reign of Tiberius. This agrees with scripture and Jesus was crucified about 31 AD. He was, then, killed before Tiberius died in 37 AD, thus fitting the 70-week prophecy given to Daniel.
The “league” refers to the pact signed by the Jews and Rome in 161 BC, which was not kept by Rome who acted “deceitfully”, conquering Israel in 63 BC. At the time, Rome was “small” with few numbers, but it began to rise in power and numbers. Many countries actually asked Rome to come in and take over, possibly because they could see how Rome was building in strength. Thus, it entered “peaceably” and took over rich lands (“fattest”) without a struggle. Lands taken by Rome were protected – much as Al Capone ‘protected’ those he wanted to take from! However, they also gained remarkably by being under Roman rule, who shared “the prey, and spoil, and riches”.
“Even for a time”… a ‘time’ in scripture is one year, or 360 days. In prophecy that translates as 360 years. Rome ruled ‘worldwide’ from 31 BC and stopped being universal in power in 330 AD, when Constantine moved the power-base to Byzantium (Constantinople). Thus, Rome was all-powerful as a military entity until then.
“He shall stir up his power”… Augustus Caesar (Octavian), Mark Antony and Lepidua combined to avenge the death of Julius Caesar. Antony went to Egypt but was seduced by Cleopatra, and decided to give her several provinces of Rome as gifts. For this reason Octavian went to war against Egypt, as an excuse to battle against Mark Antony.
Antony gathered a huge fleet of 500 ships and thousands of soldiers and horses, but Octavian had half that number. However, they were all hand-picked and very seasoned. When the ‘time for war’ came, the two massive armies met, 2nd September, 31 BC. Frightened by the battle, Cleopatra fled with 60 ships, and Antony went after her. That was his undoing, for his soldiers, seeing that he cared more for his mistress than for them, went over to Octavian’s side. Antony killed himself as a result: “his meat shall destroy him”. Cleopatra died in similar fashion.
“His army shall overflow” means Antony’s army went over to Octavian. “Many shall fall down slain” – all of Antony’s fleet was destroyed. Both Antony and Octavian pretended to be friends, but plotted against the other.
And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.
Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
Antony came to work out the warnings in Proverbs about falling for women who seduce for their own gain. And two mighty men who hated each other but pretended friendship fell to their own evils: “These king’s hearts shall be to do mischief” and “they shall speak lies at one table”. Truth and honesty should prevail in the Christian – there is no middle way.
As a result of his own stupidity, Antony lost his life. Cleopatra lost her life and kingdom, and he (Octavian) returned “to his land with great riches”. Egypt was again turned over to poverty, as it was in the time of the great Exodus. Octavian returned to Rome but Rome again went out to do battle in the south. In 66 AD Rome invaded Judea taking a number of cities, killing the inhabitants and destroying as they went. The invading Romans were recalled temporarily to deal with an emergency in Rome (as told by Christ, Matthew 24:14 etc). This was the time Christ warned people to flee… when Vespasian was recalled for a while.
On his way back to Rome he was made emperor and so his son, Titus, returned to finish the job of destroying Jerusalem and the nation, in 70 AD – he had “indignation against the holy covenant”. 110,000 Jews were killed and 97,000 taken captive, but many fled, never to return, and others were sold as slaves. Jerusalem was later torn to the ground, and the Temple foundations were ploughed up. Overall the war took seven years and, in total, nearly one and a half million Jews died.
This awful end of the Jewish nation and of so many Jews was a direct result of their murder of Jesus, as they themselves said: “His blood be upon us”. It is also why, ever since, they have been the subject of brutality and a godless existence. Despite those who are genuine Jews, Judaism is no longer a religion of God, for He sent His Son Jesus Christ to remove Judaism and to bring a New Covenant or Testament. Even so, many will one day come to Christ and move away from Judaism, as prophesied.
Who ‘returned’ at the ‘time appointed’? That was Constantine after the 360 years. He “come towards the south” – toward Licinius. Unlike earlier wars when Rome went after Egypt and Judea, this war was against an individual, Licinius. He lost to Constantine and entered into a truce, but broke it. After another war, he was executed by Constantine in 324 AD. Then Constantine made Byzantium his capital instead of Rome. So Rome no longer “forecast his devices against the strongholds” (verse 24), because, after the move, the power of Rome as a military state started to disintegrate.
The “ships of Chittim shall come against him” – the Vandals from north Africa came against the Romans with a mighty fleet that warred against all the Mediterranean. Later emperors tried to dislodge the Vandals without success, so the provinces were taken.
The Romans displayed “indignation against the holy covenant” (true Gospel and Christians). The emperors joined with the bishops of Rome who had by this time moved away from the truth, to build a church-state alliance for strength. The emperors made sure the bishop of Rome was given the title of head of the Church… but many throughout the provinces refused to bow the knee to the ‘pope’.
And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
Verse 31 means that those who forsook the covenant with God, did so by means of force. Then, they polluted the sanctuary and went over to a false gospel, which grew into what we now call Roman Catholicism. The lands subjugated by Rome were all made to bow to Catholicism, continuing the ‘abomination’ that began at the sacking of Jerusalem. (Note: From this point I use the words ‘appears to be’, or similar).
Many went after what was false, including Catholicism, which corrupts by using lies and easy words. However, Rome could not corrupt genuine believers, who did great things for their God – including martyrdom. The ‘he’ doing the flattery appears to be the pope, who gained contacts and associations by giving wealth and power.
The faithful continued to teach truth and the genuine Gospel, even though they were killed for doing so. This went on for over a millennia, until the Reformation broke the overall power of Rome. The Reformation brought short relief for those persecuted by Rome. On the other hand some within Protestantism were misled or duped by Rome and those who wanted something out of them – people like Henry 8th. It was he who demanded the joining of church and state, so Protestants at that time exchanged one form of spiritual slavery for another.
Martyrdom again took place, as faithful men and women were put to death for the truth. Thus, the true Church was ‘purged’ clean. “The time of the end” appears to be the end of persecution. In 1798, the French captured the then pope, and this put an end to the terrible Inquisition, and so the full power of Rome.
And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
Very clearly, the ‘king’ in verse 36 must be the pope, who calls himself Christ’s vicar on earth and makes himself greater than God. You might say popes do not talk against God, but they do, every time they pronounce their lies and heresies. And popes certainly prosper! They also had inordinate power over kings and queens, even to the point of sending papal armies to put down rebellion against ‘the church’. They excommunicated kings, causing them to fear for their everlasting souls. These things will continue until the “indignation be accomplished”. I see this as a possible reference to the end of the time allotted for evil to rule the earth.
After that, God will come to do His bidding – nothing can stop God doing what He wishes, and none can overturn a judgment made by God. Judgment is already reserved against Roman Catholicism and the popes, who disregarded “the God of his fathers”. Rome threw aside the true Gospel and replaced it with the old Judaism dismantled by Christ, and with paganism. Rome also, after a while, caused its priests to live unnaturally, without women. Roman authorities claim superiority even over God, because what they decide must be obeyed in heaven!
The pope and Rome will honour the “god of forces”. Some say ‘forces’, ma’owz, means munitions, and so interpret ‘forces’ as the Romish way of using military might. I disagree. It can mean a place of safety, protection, refuge, or stronghold. I believe the word is used in the sense of strength, which is the main meaning. This comes down to a similar thing, but concentrates on the fact that Rome relies not on God but on its own strength and power. Yet, Rome says it obeys God and His power! However, by going after a “god whom his fathers knew not” it shows they did not really obey God, but only called upon His name as a talisman to protect their interests. To this false god, the popes give honour, with riches…. The wealth of the Roman church being both legendary and secret. Of course, its riches are put down to its presumed godliness, which is a lie. The riches came through force, killing and threats. All this will evaporate at the end of time, as Revelation testifies.
The gods of pagans will give illusory strength to Rome until the end (verse 39), and Rome shall prevail on the world scene until that time, ever increasing its power base and riches.
And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
The time of the end, verse 40, possibly does not refer to the end of time, but the end of Rome’s complete grip on humanity. Otherwise the military activity referred to makes no real sense. When the end of time comes and Rome is finally destroyed, it will not be by fighting an army, but by God’s decree.
The king of the south would attack the pope in the north. It is not that clear who the ‘king of the south’ is or was. Some say it is/was communism, but I find that a weak contender. The main thing is that Rome’s authority was being pushed or tested by another worldwide power. The major power at one time was Henry 8th, but it may not be him. Rather, Napoleon fought against the pope in 1798 and captured him, thus breaking the power held by popes since Rome began to turn apostate, finally usurping power under Constantine. Though the military power was broken, the papacy still retains great power, mainly on a secret level.
Napoleon certainly entered many lands to conquer them, as he moved swiftly. Some refer this to communism and its ‘fall’. But, I again disagree, because communism has not fallen but is growing stronger. It is what is behind the current ‘president’ of the USA, the EU, the UN and all countries – Marxism. So, I cannot see communism being referred to here.
If we follow this idea that the papacy is mentioned, then we can say Rome entered the ‘glorious land’, meaning it has infiltrated into churches that preached truth, and so subdued them with lies. Thus ‘many shall be overthrown’. Again, this is a possibility, not a fixed interpretation.
Rome had, and still has, great financial power (‘over silver and gold’, etc.) Libya supposedly represents poor countries who look at Egypt, or richer countries, with longing. Ethiopia is said to represent richer countries, but these are assumptions.
Some would oppose Rome (verse 44) and Rome would try to destroy them with great fury. The fury of Rome is now hidden under the disguise of peace, but hatred for everything not Roman still resides in the heart of this false church. Rome will make its power base secure by subjugating all people. The ‘holy mountain’ represents Jerusalem. This is interesting because Rome has been in secret discussions with Arab nations, who have asked the pope to be a governor of the city, ruling over all religions there. But, God has made plain that Rome will fall, and nothing can stop it.
Some of the interpretations above I count to be intermediate. I am not convinced by certain supposed facts. However, the general thrust of the protracted history are reasonable. What God says is true. What I say may not be in some parts! Hence I advise caution with certain latter interpretations, which are given merely to complete the account and which seem acceptable to a point.
© January 2010
Published on www.christiandoctrine.com
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